A few basics which you must know about your PC

There are certain basic things which i don’t want to repeat in my every blog post.

That’s why in this post i am sharing the very basic things which you must know about your windows computer.

If you are a complete newbie in computers, then this post can be very helpful for you.

If you are an advanced user then maybe this will be way too basic for you to read.

But still there’s no harm to go through the article. So lets begin ..

1) Microsoft Configuration (msconfig)

The very first thing which i would like to tell you is about Microsoft Configuration (msconfig). This is a small utility in Microsoft Windows which helps us to troubleshoot the windows start up process. It can help us to change the boot parameters, the start up services as well as the start up programs. Changing the start up services and programs can help us to increase the windows start up speed.

Below i have added the images of all the tabs in msconfig utility. The five images below refer to general tab, boot tab, services tab, start up tab, and tools respectively.

How to Access Microsoft Configuration (msconfig) ?

  • If you are using XP, open start menu > run > type msconfig > press enter.
  • If you are using Windows 7, open start menu > type msconfig > press enter.

2) Windows Registry (regedit)

Windows registry is a database in your windows computer. The primary purpose of Windows Registry is to store all the windows configuration inside it. It was first introduced with Windows 3.1. You can read more about windows registry at the Wikipedia. Editing the windows registry can help us to tweak our computer, or fix certain problems. But if you mess up anything important over here then it can cause your system to malfunction.

Note that some people are under the impression that deleting Registry Keys (which are basically folders in hierarchy) can help to speed up their PC. And this is totally wrong. Deleting the ‘unnecessary’ keys can help to speed up to some extent. However there are many keys which configure your operating system. Deleting any of the important keys can cause serious problems to your operating system. I recommend not to mess with your registry unless you know what you are doing.

How to access Registry Editor (regedit) ?

  • If you are using XP, open start menu > run > type regedit > press enter.
  • If you are using Windows 7, open start menu > type regedit > press enter.

3) Computer Specifications

I have seen most people not knowing about their computer specifications. They come to me with their computer problems and when i ask them about their computer specifications they just give me some dumb answers. For example, most individuals reply like ‘i have a pink one or black one’, ‘i have a dell laptop’, etc etc.

System specifications can be defined as a list of all the components of your system like The Processor, RAM, Graphic cards, Display, Keyboard, Mouse, Camera, Operating System, Speakers, etc. By specifications I do not mean just the names of your components, but also the value or version of your component. For example i can share my computer specifications as follows 2nd generation core i7 processor, 6 gb RAM, 2GB Nvidia GT 540 Graphic card, Backlit keyboard, USB Optical Mouse, 2mp webcam, etc etc.

Even if you are not much into computers, you must always know about your system specifications. Because if someone asks you about your computer specs and you just turn your face blank and reply ‘a pink one’. The other person is gonna make fun of you.

Your system specifications can be found by going to : Right click on My Computer > Choose properties. Here you will find all the basic system specs of your computer. If you have DirectX installed, then you can take advantage of the direct x diagnostics tool. To access direct x diagnostics tool you can just goto :

  • For Windows XP : start menu > run > type dxdiag > press enter.
  • For Windows 7 : start menu > type dxdiag > press enter

4) Device Manager and Drivers

The device manager simply displays a list of all the hardware devices which are connected to your computer. The list shows the installed devices as well as the devices which are pending to be installed. By installed i mean the presence of a particular driver to run that particular hardware device. A driver can be defined as a program which helps us to run our hardware device.

Device Manager helps us to troubleshoot the incompatible hardware devices. When a particular device is not working, then that specific device would be highlighted in the list of devices displayed in the device manager. Through device manager you can enable/disable a particular device, install drivers for the device, instruct the windows to ignore the devices which are malfunctioning, or view other technical properties.

Device Manager was first introduced with Windows 95 and later added to Windows 2000. While in Windows NT based versions the Device Manager is added as a Microsoft Management Console.

How to access device manager?

  • Right click on My Computer > Click Manage.

5) Add or Remove Programs

It is very important remove or uninstall the unnecessary programs from our computer. I have seen many computer users who are very lazy to remove the unused programs from their computer. But these unnecessary programs which remain installed on your computer are loaded in your windows registry. Hence occupying unnecessary space and also affecting your system start up.

To remove a certain program in XP :

  • Click Start, click Control Panel, and then double-click Add or Remove Programs.
  • Click the program that you want to remove, and then click Remove.
  • If you are prompted to confirm the removal of the program, click Yes.

To remove a certain program in Windows 7 :

  • Click Start, click default programs, click programs and features (in left panel)
  • Double click the program which you want to remove.

  • Note: Some programs might not prompt you to confirm the removal of the program.
  • Note: You can only remove the programs which were designed or written for the windows. If you do not see your program then please refer to the program documentation for the removal of your program.

I hope this post was helpful for you. And if you love my posts, please do subscribe to codefap’s blog feed.

Finding large & small element by Recursion without using Loops

This code was one of the assignments given to me in college. I had to break my head to work this out, and then finally found out that the program code was already present in my text book. But anyway, its always better to develop our own codes than referring to textbooks. So in this post i am sharing the code with the output as well as explanation with the help of a table.

Output

Explanation of Max Recursive Method

  • As you can see in the image below, the depth of recursion is five.
  • Five recursive methods have been called to get the large (max) number.
  1. At the beginning the array {5,3,2,1,4} is passed into the rsort function with parameters (a, 0, n-1)
  2. where a is the array, 0 is the first index of array and n-1 is the last index of array.
  3. The rsort function accepts these values as follows : a is taken as a, 0 is taken as start, n-1 is taken as end.
  4. (a, 0, n-1) = (a, start, end) = (a, 0, 4)
  5. (start < end ? ) = (0 < 4 ? ) = Yes.
  6. (a[start] < a[end] ? ) = (5<4 ? ) = No.
  7. Recursive call (a, start, end-1) = (a, 0, 4-1) = (a,0, 3)
  8. (start < end ? ) = (0<3 ? ) = Yes.
  9. (a[start] < a[end] ? ) = (5<1 ? ) = No.
  10. Recursive call (a, start, end-1) = (a, 0, 3-1) = (a,0,2)
  11. And so on.. Check the table below for relevance and better understanding.

The Quick Sort Algorithm

Some of us have a mindset that quick sort is quite complicated algorithm in sorting techniques. However it is not. In this post i will explain Quick sort algorithm in detail.

The basic concept of quick sort is to pick one of the elements as the ‘pivot’ element. All other elements of the array will be rearranged by comparing with this pivot element. Everything less than the pivot element will be moved to the left of the pivot element. That means in the Left Partition. While everything greater than the pivot element will be moved to the right of the pivot element. That means in the Right Partition. Now each of these partitions are again ‘recursively’ quick sorted using the same steps.

Best Case : The quick sort algorithm acts as the fastest algorithm when middle element is chosen as the pivot element. This is because the resulting partitions are of similar size. Hence each partition will split itself into two recursively and reach the base quite fast.

Worst Case : The quick sort algorithm acts as slowest algorithm when the array is already sorted. As you can see in the picture below when array is already sorted, the depth of recursion is high.

Lets see stepwise actions for sorting 9 element array using Quick Sort
  1. We set the first element of the partition as the PIVOT.
  2. We start our right scan from the next element near to pivot element.
  3. The right scan will search for number greater than or equal to pivot element.
  4. If it finds number greater than or equal to pivot element, it will set it in a box.
  5. Now left scan will start from last element of partition.
  6. Left scan will search for number less than pivot element.
  7. If it finds number less than pivot element, it will set it in a box.
  8. If the right & left scanner did not overlap or cross each other then Swap box elements.
  9. If right & left scanner overlap or cross each other then Swap PIVOT with Left scan box elements.
  10. The new position of pivot element is the proper place of that element.
    That means this element is sorted.
  11. The array on left side of sorted element is left partition.
    The array on right side of sorted element is right partition.
  12. Repeat step 1 to 13 on left partition.
  13. Repeat step 1 to 13 on right partition.

There is one Mistake in the image above. The second line of third block says 9>=2. It is supposed to be 9>=5. Since we are comparing 9 with pivot element 5.

It took me a while to create this step wise instructions of quick sort in excel spreadsheet. I hope this makes things clear. If you get stuck somewhere, just put a comment below. I’d be glad to help you out.

Click here for program code and output of Quick Sort with some Video Links as well

Quick Sort Recursive Java Program with Output and Video Links

Quick sort is quite efficient algorithm in sorting techniques. In this post i am just sharing my piece of code of quick sort program in java. In the next post i am going to go in detailed explanation regarding quick sort algorithm. In this post i have also included some video links which will help you to understand quick sort algorithm in a better way.

Check out these Video Explanations of Quick Sort. They are just so Perfect.

Click here to see complete explanation of Quick Sort Algorithm

What is the difference between Recursion and Iteration

Recursion Iteration
Definition Recursion is a process of executing certain set of instructions repeatedly by calling self function or method repeatedly. Iteration is the process of executing certain set of instruction repeatedly, without calling the self function or method.
Efficiency The recursive method are less efficient. The iterative methods are more efficient because of their execution speed.
Memory Utilization More memory is utilized in Recrusion Less memory is utilized in interation
Program Size Recursive methods give compactness to our program. Lines of code is comparatively greater in interation.
Complexity Recursion is quite complex to implement. Its less complex.

Summary :

1) Recursive function – is a function that is partially defined by itself whereas Iterative functions – are loop based imperative repetitions of a process.
2) Recursion Uses selection structure whereas Iteration uses repitation structure.
3) An infinite loop occurs with iteration if the loop-continuation test never becomes false whereas infinite recursion occurs if the recursion step does not reduce the problem in a manner that converges on the base case.
4) Iteration terminates when the loop-continuation condition fails whereas recursion terminates when a base case is recognized.
5) When using recursion multiple activation records are created on stack for each call when in iteration everything is done in one activation record.
6) Recursion is usually slower then iteration due to overhead of maintaining stack whereas iteration does not use stack so it’s faster than recursion.
7) Recursion uses more memory than iteration.
8) Infinite recursion can crash the system whereas infinite looping uses cpu cycles repeatedly.
9) Recursion makes code smaller and iteration makes code longer.

I hope this post was helpful to you guys. Please subscribe to the blog feed if you like my posts.

Create a 3D text in Photoshop CS6

Sup guys! This is Sudipto here from Softbox. And today you are lucky to be here ‘coz today you’re gonna learn the simplest and the easiest way to create a minimal and clean 3D text in Photoshop CS6 like this :

NOTE : This tutorial is also applicable for the previous versions of Photoshop. If you don’t wanna read this complete post, then watch the video tutorial : here
Ooook! So lets get started!
So, the first thing you need to do is open your Photoshop application! Ok i was trying to make a joke here! 😛

  1. So now that you have started your Photoshop application, create a new layer of any dimensions you want.
  2. Now set the background color to Light Gray color HEX CODE : #d0cfcf
  3. Now select the Horizontal Type tool from the toolbox.
  4. Select your favorite font-style & font-weight, set the font-size, choose a color if you want & set the anti-aliasing method to strong.
  5. Now type-in your text.
  6. Now select the text layer [Here the text layer is 3D Text] right click on it and hit Duplicate layer, to create a new copy of the text layer.
  7. Now apply these settings to the upper text layer, by double clicking on the layer or by right clicking on the first layer and then selecting Blending properties :
    -Bevel & Emboss > Style : Inner Bevel, Technique : Smooth, Depth : 100%, Direction : Up, Size : 12px, Soften : 5px, Angle : 120, Use global light, Altitude : 30, Glass Contour : Default not anti-aliased, Highlight mode : Overlay having color : #ffffff, Opacity : 15%, Shadow Mode : Linear Burn using color : #000000, Opacity : 4%.
    -Inner Shadow > Blend Mode : Overlay using color : #ffffff, Opacity : 75%, Angle : 120, Use global light, Distance : 1px, Choke : 0%, Size : 0px, Contour : Default not anti-aliased, Noise : 0%.
    -Inner Glow > Blend Mode : Overlay, Opacity : 25%, Noise : 0%, Color : #ffffff, Technique : Precise, Source : Edge, Choke : 50%, Size : 2px, Contour : Default not anti-aliased, Range : 100%, Jitter : 0%.
    -Gradient Overlay > To get the gradients used in this Tutorial click here & choose the light gray color gradient from the gradient pack or just create your own light gray gradient, the thing is you must use light color gradients that’s it! Style : Linear having Align with Layer checked, Scale : 100%, Angle : 90.
    -Outer Glow > Blend Mode : Overlay, Opacity : 30%, Noise : 0%, Color : #ffffff, Technique : Softer, Spread : 0%, Size : 10px, Contour : Default not anti-aliased, Range : 100%, Jitter : 0%.
    -Drop Shadow > Blend Mode : Linear Burn using color : #000000, Opacity : 30%, Angle : 120 using Global Light, Distance : 3px, Spread : 0%, Size : 15px, Contour : Default not anti-aliased, Noise : 0%.
  8. After applying the above given Blending properties to the upper text layer, it must look similar to the example given below [Lower text layer is hidden] :
  9. Now open the Blending properties of the lower text layer [first unhide the layer] & apply the following properties to it :
    -Bevel & Emboss > Style : Inner Bevel, Technique : Smooth, Depth : 100%, Direction : Up, Size : 12px, Soften : 5px, Angle : 120 using the Global Light, Altitude : 30, Glass Contour : Default not anti-aliased, Highlight Mode : Overlay using color : #ffffff, Opacity : 15%, Shadow Mode : Linear Burn using color : #000000, Opacity : 4%.
    -Inner Shadow > Blend Mode : Color Burn using color : #000000, Opacity : 30%, Angle : 120, Use global light, Distance : 3px, Choke : 0%, Size : 30px, Contour : Default not anti-aliased, Noise : 0%.
    -Inner Glow > Blend Mode : Linear Burn, Opacity : 10%, Noise : 0%, Color : #000000, Technique : Softer, Source : Edge, Choke : 0%, Size : 20px, Contour : Default not anti-aliased, Range : 50%, Jitter : 0%.
    -Gradient Overlay > This time use a gradient which is slightly darker than the gradient of the upper text layer.
    -Outer Glow > Blend Mode : Normal, Opacity : 10%, Noise : 0%, Color : #000000, Technique : Softer, Spread : 0%, Size : 7px, Contour : Default not anti-aliased, Range : 50%, Jitter : 0%.
    -Drop Shadow > Blend Mode : Linear Burn using color : #000000, Opacity : 30%, Angle : 120 using Global Light, Distance : 1px, Spread : 0%, Size : 8px, Contour : Default not anti-aliased, Noise : 0%.
  10. After applying all the above given properties you will get a text like the example given below :
  11. Now select the lower text layer and hit Ctrl+t or check the Show Transformation Controls from the top toolbar.
  12. Now reduce the size of the lower text layer symmetrically from both the sides so that it makes a 3D illusion.
  13. So now the final text will look like a 3D text which is created without using new 3D feature of PS CS6, this will be useful for those guys who do not have a GPU card installed on their system, as the new 3D feature of PS CS6 requires a GPU installed.

So…..we are at the end of this tutorial-post, stay tuned for more exciting tutorials & remember to subscribe to our YouTube channel to get regular video updates!

Thanks for reading! Meet you in the next post, Peace!

Display Multiple Clocks in Windows 7

multiple clocks in windows 7

Perhaps if you want to track the time of other countries or locations around the globe without losing your current time zone, then this can be really helpful. First let me tell you why i ever wanted to use multiple clocks. I personally wanted to track the time of Lithuania. A friend of mine, with whom i play multi-player game online, lives there. So by adding one more clock of his time zone, i would know what time i should play, so that we would be in-game at the same time. Lets see how to do that :

  • Click on your current time in Taskbar. The clock window opens up.
  • Click on ‘ Change date and time settings’
  • After that click on ‘Additional Clocks’ tab.
date and time
  • Just click ‘show this clock’ and set that clock’s timezone.
  • Enter a name for that clock. In my case i entered Lithuania.
  • Click apply and ok. And you will see one more clock.
  • You can add 2 additional clocks.
  • So in total, you can have 3 clocks. 1 is the main clock, and 2 other additional clocks.